I'm now in Poland🇵🇱 and have found that I really love the country😍 And now I'm considering learning Polish, although I know it is incredibly hard to acquire the proficiency.
Then, another question hit on my head - How is each Slavic language different from each other, including Polish🇵🇱, Czech🇨🇿, Slovakian🇸🇰, Russian🇷🇺, and Ukrainian🇺🇦.
I found one interesting blog titled Similarities and Differences Between the Slavic Languages, and I got some excerpts from there.
Grammar is similar
There are minor differences between Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and so forth, but they are remarkably similar in terms of grammar. Their grammars are at least as similar as the grammars of French, Spanish and Italian.
But vocabulary is quite different
however, quite different when it comes to vocabulary; more different than Spanish is from Italian or from French. In a way, in terms of vocabulary, the sort of outlier, the one with the largest lexical difference or distance seems to be Russian. In other words, I found that Czech, Polish and Ukrainian in terms of their vocabulary were closer together. Although perhaps grammatically Ukrainian is closer to Russian, and certainly in the writing system they use.
Another resources might concur with the aforementioned statement.
Russian and Polish are both Slavonic languages. Russian is East-Slavonic and Polish is West-Slavonic. It's possible to find words which sounds the same way. Even if you find a hundred words it doesn't mean anything - it's even easier to find 10 000 words which are absolutely different.
They are both Slavic languages, but they only have roughly 38% lexical overlap - compare this with 56% for English and German, 82% for Spanish and Italian, or 86% for Polish and Slovak.
While Slavic languages are notoriously, incredibly difficult for English speakers to learn due to their richly detailed and complicated grammar, they are relatively easy if you already know another Slavic language. They have near-total overlap in how their grammar and syntax works, even with how unbelievably complicated their grammar and syntax can get.
The vast majority of differences between two Slavic languages will be in pronunciation, cadence, and vocabulary, and the few grammatical differences between them usually amount to small quirks rather than major hurdles.
Not sure where the 38% comes from, but it is interesting to hear.
Russian has 85% intelligibility of Rusyn, 74% of oral Belorussian and 85% of written Belorussian, 60% of Balachka, 50% of oral Ukrainian and 85% of written Ukrainian, 36% of oral Bulgarian (varies from 7-70%) and 80% of written Bulgarian, 38% of Polish, 30% of Slovak and oral Montenegrin and 50% of written Montenegrin, 12% of oral Serbo-Croatian and 25% of written Serbo-Croatian and 10% of Czech.
Czech has 82% intelligibility of Slovak (varies from 70-95%), 12% of Polish and 5% of Russian and Bulgarian.