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Don't be confused with subject and topic on Mandarin

In Mandarin, some sentences form a topic as well as a subject. For example, the following sentence starts with a topic before a subject.


In this sentence, 这本书 is a topic and is a subject. Let's use more examples:


If a sentence has either a topic or a subject but not both, you must detect whether it is a topic or a subject. For example:


This sentence can be read I took 3 photos.. However, it is possible this means I took 3 photos by pushing the shutter 3 times, or I went to a studio to be taken photos there 3 times.

Similarly, the following sentence:


This is interpretable as I operated the surgery by myself, or the doctor operated the surgery on me.

Do NOT be confused with the topic and subject in Mandarin.